Indian wars and civil war

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After that, European powers should stay out of America and America from Europe. The US also claimed this doctrine for South America. Domestically, the US Senate in 1830 adopted the Indian Removal Act. This should identify the Indians from the areas east of the Mississippi. However, there was also resistance from the Americans against this practice. With the Trail of Tears, the Indians were driven from the fertile areas in the southeast to barren Oklahoma.

The Indians were to live in reservations. Only a few fights the Indians could decide for themselves (as in the Battle of Little Bighorn in 1876 in Montana). The armed conflicts as well as diseases led to a drastic decimation of the Indian population groups. It took a few years before the Indians received full civil rights (1924) and the policy of compulsory assimilation etc. was also ended.

Problematic between the northern and the southern states of the Union became increasingly the opposite in the slave question. As the North became more and more industrialized, shifting from slaves to “cheap” workers, slaves were still used on the cotton plantations of the South. Over the years, more and more new states emerged and became part of the United States. In 1820, Maine (as a state without slaves) was only able to become a US state, because at the same time Missouri, a slave-holding state, joined (Missouri compromise).

So it remained in a tie in the US Senate. However, the nation was more and more divided on this issue, and especially in the north, liberal movements were strengthening, pointing out that all human beings are equal and that slavery is abolished. The split came in 1860 when Republican Abraham Lincoln declared and opponents of slavery were elected 16th President of the United States.

US History: House of Abraham Lincoln in Springfield
House of Abraham Lincoln in Springfield (Illinois)

South Carolina stepped out of the Union on December 20, 1820. It was followed by the states of Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia and Louisiana. These founded in 1861 in Montgomery the Confederate States of America (CSA). A few days later, Texas followed the new confederation, as well as Virginia, Tennessee, Arkansas and finally North Carolina. As the capital of the state Richmond (Virginia) was determined. President of the Southern States was Jefferson Davis (1808 – 1889).

It finally came to civil war (Civil War), which raged in the years 1860 – 1865 and which was ultimately won by the northern states (especially after the turning points in the battles at Vicksburg and Gettysburg). Large tracts of land were devastated by the war and there were great losses on both sides. Slavery was abolished. The Southern states were under the Reconstruction (until 1877) gradually restored to full states of the Union (as the last States of Texas in March 1870 and Georgia in July 1870).

In addition to Tennessee, they had been managed in the meantime by military governors and had to pay reparations. Many southern officials were dismissed and replaced by former slaves. President Davis was captured in 1865, the process was discontinued in 1869.

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